自学考试英文最基本的五个时态

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自学考试英文最基本的五个时态

1、 通常目前时:

用动词原型表明,但奇数第三人称后要加-s,在词尾加-s时应该注意:

1. 通常情况:加-s 例:reads,writes,says

2. 以s,x,ch,sh扫尾的词加-es 例:teaches,washes,guesses

3. 以子音字母+y结束的词变y为i再加-es 例:try—tries,carry—carries.

这个时态的疑问句通常以句首加助动词do,does构成。句中动词要用原型动词be提早:

do you know it?

are you students?

does she have a pen?

1.通常目前时表明常常性或习惯性的动作:

we always care for each other and help each other.

they cycle to work every day.

2.目前的特点或情况:

he loves sports.

do you sing?a little.

i major in english.

3. 遍真理:

light travels faster than sound.

two and four makes six.

the moon moves round the earth.

有的表明情况和感觉的动词常常可用于通常目前时:be,love,like,hate,want,hope,need,prefer,wish,know, understand,remember,believe,recognize,guess,suppose,mean,belong,think(觉得),feel,envy,doubt,remain,consist,contain,seem,look(看着),see,fit,suit, owe,own,hear,find,suggest,propose,allow,show(阐明),prove,mind(在意),have(有), sound(听起来),taste(尝起来),matter,require,possess,desire等等。

i feel a sharp pain in my chest.

the soup contains too much salt.

you see what i mean?

the coat fits you very well.

how do you find the book?

有的表明动作的动词间或可用于这一时态,表明现刻的动作,由于动作持续时间机短,用于进行时不自然:

i send you my best wishes.

i salute your courage.

now i extend my heartfelt thanks to you.

在口语中这个时态用来表明一个按规则、策略或组织产生的情况(这是都有一个表明将来时间的状语):

when do the train leave(sTOP at jinan)?

the plane take off at 11 am.

tomorrow is saturday.

is there a firm on tonight?

但这只限少量动词,如begin,come,go,leave,sail,start,arrive,return,dine,end,sTOP,depart,open,close,be等。别的,在时间或条件从句中,以后动作或情况多用这一时态表明:

tell her about that when she come.

turn off the light before you leave.

we‘ll start as soon as you are ready.

在口语中,这个时态间或可以用来表明一个现已产生的动作(这个动作产生的时间在说话人脑中处于非常无关紧要的地方):

they say xiao wu is back.is that true?

xiao yu tells me you‘re going abroad.

oh,i forget where he lives.

yes,you answer quite well.

除此之外通常目前时还多用于报刊、电影、电视说明等其他几种情况。

2、 目前进行时

目前进行时用助动词be的人称方法加目前分词构成,它的一定、否定、疑问方法如下:

i am working.

i am not working.

am i working?

目前进行时主要表明目前或目前这一阶段正在进行的动作。

where are they having the basket-ball match?

they are putting up the scaffolding.

he‘s showing a foreign guest round the city.

在不少情况下,表明正在进行的动作的汉语语句,并没“正在”如此的字,在译为英语时却需要用进行时态:

how are you getting on with the work?

the work is going fairly smoothly.

you are making rapid progress.

it is blowing hard.

who are you waiting for?

whenever i see her,she is working in the garden.我每次看到她时,她一直在花园里干活。

在通常目前时所列的表明情况和感觉的动词,通常不可以用于进行时态,因为他们不可以表明正在进行的动作。但倘若词义改变,能表明一个正在进行的动作,就可以用于进行时态,试比较下面的语句:

do you see anyone over there?你看到那里有哪些人吗?

are you seeing someone off?你在给哪个送行吗?

i hear someone singing.我听见有人歌唱。

they are hearing an english talk?他们在听一个英语陈述。

what do you think of it?你感觉这如何?

what are you thinking about?你在想什么?

别的,表明没办法继续动作的动词,通常不适合用于进行时态,但有的可以用于这个时态表明重复、行将等:

he is jumping up and down.她一上一下地跳着。

the train is arriving.火车就要进站了。

the old man is dying.老头病危了。

目前进行时有时可用来表明一个在近期按计划或安组织要进行的动作(这是多有一个表明将来时间的状语):

we are leaving on friday.

are you going anywhere tomorrow?

a foreign guest is giving a lecture in english this afternoon.

xiao hong!coming.

who is interpreting for you?

we are having a holiday next monday.

但这仅限于少数动词,如go,come,leave,start,arrive,lunch,return,dine,work,sleep,stay,play,do,have,wear等。

别的,“be going+不定式”这个结构常常用来表明行将产生的事或计划(预备)做的事:

i am afraid it is going to rain.

it is going to be rather cold tomorrow.

she is not going to speak at the meeting.

在这个结构中曩昔有很多人不赞成用go和come这两个动词,感到非常别扭,建议不说are you going to go anywhere tomorrow?而说are you going anywhere tomorrow?不说is she going to come?而说is she coming?但目前在这种结构顶用两个动词的人愈加多,这种使用方法基本上被大伙同意了。

除此之外,在时间和条件状语从句中,间或也可用目前进行时表明以后的情况或通常情况:

do not mention this when you are talking with him.

remember that when you are taking a rest,some else is always working.

if she is still sleeping,do not wake her up.

目前进行时有时用来替代通常目前时,表明一个常常性动作或情况,这是或是为了表明一种爱情(a)如赞赏、厌烦等,或是为了着重情况的暂时性(b)。

a. how are you feeling today?(比how do you feel today?更显亲热)

xiao hua is doing fine work at school.(比xiao hua does fine work at school.更富赞赏)

he is always thinking of his work.表赞赏

he is constantly leaving his thing about.她总是乱扔东西。(表不满)

he is always boasting.他老爱说鬼话。(表厌烦)

b.he is sleeping in the next room now.他目前目前是在近邻房间睡了(不再本来房间睡了)。

the professor is typing his own letters while his secretary is ill.

where is he working?他目前在那里工作?(可能刚换工作)

for this week we are starting work at 7:30.

he is walking to work because his bicycle is being repaired.

be间或可用于进行时态,表明一时的体现:

you are not being modest.

he is being silly.

she is being friendly.

xiao hong is being a good girl today.

do not talk rot.i am being serious.

注: 在there和here引起的语句中,常可用通常目前时替代目前进行时:

here comes the bus.(=the bus is coming.)

there goes the bell. (=the bell is ringing.)

在某些情况下两种情况都可以用,没多少不同:

i wonder (am wondering) how i should answer then.

does your leg hurt? (is your leg hurting?)

it itches (is itching) terribly.

my back aches (is aching)。

i write (am writing ) to inform you.

3、 通常以后时

通常以后时由助动词shall或will加动词原型构成,shall用于第一人称,will用于2、三人称。这个时态的一定、否定及疑问组织可表示如下:

i shall go.

i shall not go.

shall i go?

除英国以外的说英语的国家,在陈说句中,即使在第一人称通常也用will,在英国也有这种趋势,在口语中常紧缩为i‘ll.

通常以后时表明马上产生的动作和情况:

i will (shall) arrive tomorrow.

will you be busy tonight?

the agreement will come into force next spring.

we won‘t (shan’t) be free tonight.

有时表明以后的时间状语,有时没时间状语,这个时候要从意思上辨别是不是指将来的动作或情况:

i will think it over.

who will take the chair?

will she come?

they won‘t object it.

在以i 或 we 作主语的问句中,通常用shall,这个时候或是寻求他们的定见(a),或是问询一个情况(b):

a. shall i make a fair copy of it?

which book shall i read first?

where shall we meet?

b. shall we have any classes tomorrow?

when shall we have the rehearsal?

shall i be able to find them there?

在这种问句中,近年来也有不少人用will,尤其是美国。

what will we do?

how will get there?

which will i take?

注意在时间或条件状语从句中,通常不可以用以后时态,而用目前时态替代:

i‘ll let you have the book when i’m through.

they‘ll fight till they win complete victory.

i‘ll be round to see you if i have time tomorrow.

注:在两种情况下条件从句可以用通常以后时:

1. 表明期望:

if they won‘t cooperate, our plan will fall flat.

2.主句的谓语表时目前的情况:

if he won‘t arrive this morning, why should we wait here.

表明行将产生的动作或情况,除去通常以后时外,还有一些其他结构和时态:

1. be going +不定式(表计划、预备作的事或行将产生或一定要产生的事):

we ‘re going to put up a building here.

how are you going to spend your holiday?

who is going to speak first?

2. be +不定式(表明按计划组织要产生的事或用来寻求他们的定见):

when is the factory to go into production?

the line is (going) to be opened to traffic next week.

am i to (=shall i ) go on with the work?

3.通常目前时(限于某些动词,表明按计划或时间要产生的事):

school finishes on january 18th.

we get off at the next sTOP.

when does the winter vacation begin?

4.目前进行时(限于某些动词,表明按计划组织要产生的事):

we are having an english evening tonight.

they are playing some folk music next.

i am talking the children to the zoo (on sunday )。

在单纯表明以后情况,尤其是谈一连串的工作或在带时间或条件状语从句的语句中,谓语多用以后时:

next term i will try to do better. i‘ll speak more english and do more reading-aloud.

he‘ll come to see you when he has time.

he‘ll tell you if you ask him.

在表明计划或预备时,如不提时间、条件等,多用be going to这个结构,用通常以后不时极少的,尤其是在口语中:

he is going to buy a dictionary.(极少说he will buy a dictionary.)

在谈行将产生的情况时,用be going to 这个结构也多一些。在表明按计划组织要做得事时,用be to 的时候也不少。别的还有以后进行时等时态也可表明以后的动作。

注:be about to 可表明行将作某事

we are about to leave.

he is about to retire.

通常以后时有时还可用来表明一种倾向或习惯性动作:

a drowning man will catch at a straw.

crops will die without water.

oil will float on water.

注:这一时态有时用来表明推断(a)或容量(b):

a. that man in the middle will be the visiting minister.

b. the hall will seat 500people.

4、 通常曩昔时

通常曩昔时由动词的曩昔式表明,动词be有was, were两个曩昔式,was用于1、三人称奇数,were用于其他情况。在构成否定及疑问句时,通常都凭着助动词did, 动词be有其一同的疑问及否定方法(基本上和通常目前时一同)。这个时态的三种结构可表明如下:

通常动词:

i worked there.

i did not work there.

did you work there?

动词be:

i was there.

i was not there.

was i there?

通常曩昔时主要表明曩昔某时产生的动作或情况(包含习惯性动作)

who put forward the suggestion?

when did she leave?

she often came to help us.

有的情况,产生的时间不非常了解,但事实上是曩昔产生的,应当用曩昔时态:

i was glad to get your letter.

what was the final score?

how did you like their performance?

*在谈到已死去人的情况多用曩昔时:

lao she was a great writer.

my grandmother was kind to us.

有时两种时态都可以用:

brahms was/is one of the greatest representative of german classicalism.

注:在口语中通常曩昔时有时可用来替代通常目前时,使口气变得悠扬一些,比如在下面语句顶用通常目前时或通常曩昔时都可以,但用曩昔时看上去谦让一些(带有更多商议的口吻):

do/did you want to see me?

i wonder/wondered if you could spare a few minutes.

i want/wanted to ask if i can/could borrow your bike.

5、 目前完成时

目前完成时由have的人称方法加过去分词构成。他的一定、否定及疑问方法如下:

i have read it.

i have not read it.

have you read it?

目前完成时表示现刻过去产生的动作或情况,可所以:

1. 到目前为止的这一时期中产生的情况(可能时屡次动作的总和,也可表示情况和习惯性动作):

we have opened up 200 mu of land this year.

how many pages have you covered today?

i haven‘t seen him for many days.

2. 对近况有影响的某一已产生的动作:

the delegation has already left.

i have seen the film many times.

the city has taken on a new look.

注: 这个时态有时还可以表明曩昔曾产生过一次或屡次的情况,也可以说是一种阅历:

all our children have had measles.

man‘s hairs have grown white in a single might.

he says that he has seen a meteor at some time.

这个时态的根本特点是它和目前有亲近的联络,或是讲迄今为止这一段时间的情况,或是讲一个影响近况的动作,如此它不是从时间上便是从结果上和目前联络起来。依据这个特点咱们可以辨别什么时间用通常曩昔时,什么时间用目前完成时:

1. 当有一个表明曩昔某时的状语(包含when)时,不可以用目前完成时:

i saw her a minute ago.

just now xiao lin came to see you.

when did you get to know it?

2.当有一个表明到目前为止这期间的状语时,多用目前完成时:

up till now we have planted over 24,000 fruit trees.

we haven‘t had any physical training classes this week.

he has learned a good deal since he came here.

3.在用already, yet, just, as yet, ever, never这种副词作状语时,常可用目前完成时:

this is the second game. they ‘ve already won a game.

have you got the plan ready yet? –no, not yet.

i‘ve just received a money order.

4.在一个人谈一个曩昔的动作,不触及它对目前的影响时,通常用通常曩昔时,倘若谈一件现已产生的事,不考虑它是什么时间产生的,而主要考虑对目前的影响,多用目前完成时:

did you get up very early?

has he got up?

what did you have for lunch?

have you had lunch?

i got the news from xiao yu.

i‘ve got no news from him.

注: 有since引起的状语时,主要谓语通常用完成时态:

we met in 1972,and have been good friends ever since (then)。

it has rained a great deal since you left.

we haven‘t seen each other again since them (since we parted in 1952)。 但在表明时间长度时可用通常目前时。

l 在运用一个表明情况的动词(如be, seem等)作谓语时,间或也可用目前时态:

it‘s ok since i fixed it.

it seems a long time since i was here.

i‘m getting interested in china since you came here. 间或用过去时,特别时在口语中。

i lost ten pounds since i started swimming.

在since引起的状语从句中,一般用通常过去时。但间或可用目前完成时:

i haven‘t seen him since i have been back.

since i have known her, she has been fond of sports.

有时相同一句汉语,由于运用场所不需要,译成英语时可能需要不同时态:

has xiao yang come?

did xiao yang come?

how many people have gone to the factory?

how many people went to the factory?

we haven‘t invited him.

we didn‘t invite him.

有时相同一个动作,也跟着说话的目的不同而用不同时态表明:

has he gone to town? how did he go there? 后一句谈动作自己,与目前无联络。

have you had your lunch? where did you have it? 你吃中午饭了吗?在那吃的?

has she left? why did she leave so early?

某些动词的目前完成时刻表明一向继续到目前的情况:

how have you been (recently)?

the conference has lasted five days.

we‘ve known each other since we were children.

尤其是动词be,是常常如此用的:

he‘s been back for three days. (不可以用has come back)

she has been a teacher for ten years. (不可以说has become)

he has been in college for a year. (不可以说has entered)

由于come, become, enter和get up 等动词都只代表一个时间短的动作,不可以代表一个连续的情况,这是需要用be来表明连续的情况:

别的有少量动词(主如果work, study, teach, live等)可用于目前完成时表明一向继续到目前的一个动作:

how long have you worked here?

she has taught english for many years.

we‘ve lived here for quite a few years.

但大部分动词不适合如此用,而需用目前完成进行时。

注:have been (to)长可用来表明“到过某地”或“刚去做过某事”

have you ever been to xi‘an?

xiao liu has just been here.

we‘ve been here(there)many times.

l 目前完成时还可用在表明时间或条件的状语从句中,表明以后某时业已完成的动作:

i‘ll go and see the exhibition as soon as i have got the recorder fixed.

we‘ll start at five o’clock if it has sTOPped raining by then

i will gibe my opinion when i have read the book through.

这用“目前完成时”时表明这动作将在另一动作之前完成。倘若两个动词同时发生,或简直同时发生,(也就是说一个动作紧接着另一个动作),通常就不需要这个时态:

i‘ll let you know as soon as i hear from her.

she‘ll write you when she gets there.

在这种情况下(尤其是当咱们用的是get, arrive, see, hear, leave, return 等代表迅即完成的动作的动词时),多用通常目前时。有时两种时态都可以用:

we‘ll leave as soon as it sTOPs(has sTOPped) raining.

i‘ll tell him after you leave (have left)。

注:have got 形式上时目前完成时,却和have时同一个意思:

she has got (=has) a slight temperature.

have you got (=do you have) any sisters?

别的,目前有一种倾向,尤其是在美国,在随意说话时,常用通常过去时替代目前完成时:

i saw it already (=i have seen it already)。

did you return the records yet (=have you returned the records yet)?

i just come back (=i‘ve just come back)。

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